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As we do not know who wrote the first mother version of the text, and subsequently we do not have certainty on when and where it was written, I will briefly discuss the dating of the first edition. I will first give an overview of the source texts assembled in the treatise. Departing from this case study I want to sustain the twofold thesis that 1 the new and radically subversive ideas were widely disseminated making of translation an essential part of the philosophical programme, and 2 through translation and retranslation the philosophical messages underwent a significant change and were transformed in the direction of a radical Enlightenment.

La caduta dei tiranni by Alberto Arbasino

Let me come back to the a bit complicated story of our text. The earliest version has the title Esprit de Spinosa. It was first published in The Hague in However, the book circulated as a manuscript before ; in the collection of the Baron of Hohendorf who died in a manuscript was found. The oldest reliable attestation of the existence of the text dates from January After this publication, the fame of the treatise grew steadily with six subsequent editions that followed before Well-chosen long quotations appropriated in silence the sources are mostly not mentioned are alternated with comments of the anonymous author and strategically inserted and appropriated into a clearly legible combative manifesto.

The attack on ecclesiastical power and religion is crucial. Its most important novelty although is that it offers theoretical text fragments of different heterodox authors in one coherent text, that it relates them to their political significance and that it presents them in common sense language. It translates moreover the whole new constructed text into the vernacular French, a language comprehensible for a broad and common readership. It occurs in both versions with slight but interesting differences.

Lucilio alias Giulio Cesare Vanini was an Italian philosopher and freethinker, one of the first naturalists and representatives of libertinism. His De admirandis is composed of dialogues taking place between the author-philosopher and an imaginary Alessandro. Vanini interprets religion in a naturalistic way, and regarding the motif of fraud by religion he closely aligns with Machiavelli whose work at first sight he reads through the commonplace lenses of the Christian countermovement as the consultant of tyrants, cynical advocate of violence and fraud.

The revolutionary rhetoric, however, was quickly noticed and the establishment took drastic measures: in Vanini was executed in a horrific manner, and together with his books he was burned. Furthermore, texts were published in which his atheism was confuted. There is neither God nor Devil, for was there a God, I would intreat him to consume the Parliament with his Thunder, as being altogether unjust and wicked; and was there a Devil, I would also pray to him to swallow it up in some subterraneous Place. But since there is neither the one nor the other, I cannot do it. Let us first have a look at the first two text fragments.

Caeteras vero leges non nisi figmenta et illusiones esse asserebant, non a Cacodaemone aliquo inductas fabulosum namque illorum genus dicitur a Philosophis , sed a Principibus ad subditorum paedagogiam excogitatas et a sacrificulis, ob honoris et auri aucupium, confirmatas, non miraculis, sed Scriptura, cuius nec originale ullibi adinvenitur, quae miracula facta recitet et bonarum ac malarum actionum repromissiones polliceatur, in futura vita, ne fraus detegi possit.

All other religions, according to those ancient Sages, were but Illusions, not forged by any good or evil spirits, for they believed such beings belonged to the reign of fables but by princes and magistrates, in order to curb their people; and fomented by ambitious and covetous priests, which, instead of true and real miracles, to confirm its veracity, made use of certain scriptures, the originals of which the rewards and punishments regard but another life, fearing that the fraud should be too early discovered.

All other laws are only human fictions and mere illusions forged not by Demons or evil Spirits, which only existed as an idea, but by the Princes and Priests, the first ones to give more weight to their authority, the latter to enrich themselves through an infinity of fantasies sold dearly to the ignorant. All other laws are but human fictions and mere illusions invented, not by Demons or evil Spirits, which only existed as an idea, but by the politics of Princes and Priests.

The first ones thereby wanted to give more weight to their authority, the latter wanted to enrich themselves through an infinity of fantasies sold dearly to the ignorant.

Regarding their essential parts, one can clearly speak about a translation and not a paraphrase, although there is a series of far-reaching shifts. We see a transformation which is not unimportant, a reversal, within this overall accurate translation. This motif is equally present in both texts but shifted over different sentences. One observes a more significant shift between the two texts in the references to the Bible.


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Neque homo est — inquiunt — propter Deum. Nullius indigus Deus est. Neither do men exist in function of God, say [the philosophers]: God does not need anything. The religion criticism turned into a radically new philosophy, an operation to which the translation and the retranslation are used as a strategy. This translation was made in by one of the most radical freethinkers of the era, Johann Christian Edelmann. Between and the north of Italy was deeply influenced by the French revolutionary spirit and feverish efforts were made to carry out political and religious innovations. These innovations were aimed at the Enlightenment of society and to create the intellectual fertile setting for establishing a democratic republican regime.

It was the making of a revolution of the mind, a philosophical plot. And it is in this context that also the anonymous translation must be situated. All other laws are but human fictions and mere illusions invented, not by demons or evil spirits, which only existed in our imagination, but by the politics of tyrants and priests. This is a translation with few shifts inspired only by Italian grammar.

These re translations step by step radicalize the philosophical meaning of the text and transform the ideas of natural religion into materialism and the metaphysical critique into political revolutionary ideas. I can therefore conclude by stressing again what I said at the beginning of this article. These new ideas were widely spread making of translation an essential part of the philosophical programme.

In addition, it was through translation itself that the meanings transformed themselves into their radical novelty and Enlightenment. On retranslation, see also the articles of Venuti and Brisset. There is also a copy of this edition in the Royal Library of Brussels sign. The copy in Halle mentioned by Van der Linde in the Spinoza. Bibliographie of 31 has disappeared.

Benoit de Spinosa that furnishes the text from the edition with in notes the variations of the edition of and of Benoit de Spinoza. Benoit de Spinosa. Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, Trattato dei tre impostori. La vita e lo spirito del signor Benedetto de Spinoza. A cura di S. Prefazione di Richard H. Torino: Einaudi, A cura di L. Misattributed to Handel; composed by Giovanni Battista Ferrandini — Dixit Dominus represents Handel's earliest dated autograph, and it is the earliest surviving autograph from his large-scale compositions.

Probably written for services held at the church of S. Maria di Monte Santo to celebrate the feast day of "Madonna del Carmine". Laudate pueri dominum in F major is Handel's earliest surviving autograph. Might have been composed in Halle, Rome, 13 July Probably written for a grand Vespers service held at the church of S. Rome, May — June Probably first performed on Trinity Sunday at Francesco Ruspoli 's private chapel. London, c.


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Cannons , — Lawrence, Whitchurch , London. Chandos Anthem No. Also considered a Canticle. Cannons, — Transcribed for orchestra by Edward Elgar in as the Overture in D minor , and by Stokowski in The overture was later reused in Handel's oboe concerto No. Two movements added later. As pants the hart. Orchestrated version of HWV a.

I tre tiranni Commedie del Cinquecento (Italian Edition)

Scored for organ and basso continuo alone. There is no evidence that the work was performed during Handel's lifetime. The trio "Thou rulest the raging sea" performed at Cannons but probably spurious; possibly composed by Johann Christoph Pepusch or Nicola Francesco Haym instead. Misattributed to Handel in Arnold's edition and in HG By Maurice Greene, before Coronation Anthem No. Performed at the Anointing. Let Thy Hand Be Strengthened. Sung at the Recognition the King being presented to the people.

The King Shall Rejoice. Should have been sung at the Recognition, but instead it was performed at the Crowning. My Heart is Inditing. Performed during the coronation of the Queen. Revised for the wedding of Princess Mary.

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Probably first performed fully choral without solo movements. The Sinfonia was not performed at the funeral and was probably added later. To celebrate the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle Aachen. Blessed are they that considereth the poor or Foundling Hospital Anthem. Foundling Hospital Chapel, London. First performance probably in fully choral version.

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The solo movements were probably added c. St Paul's Cathedral , London.

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Utrecht Jubilate. Te Deum "Queen Caroline".

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