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Metallic Micro and Nano Materials: Fabrication with Atomic Diffusion Science & Business Media, Jan 4, - Technology & Engineering - pages.
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- Nanolaminated composite materials: structure, interface role and applications
- Materials science - Wikipedia
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Walmart Services. Get to Know Us. Customer Service. In The Spotlight. Shop Our Brands. It is therefore common to see the plural form "nanotechnologies" as well as "nanoscale technologies" to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size. Because of the variety of potential applications including industrial and military , governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research. Nanotechnology as defined by size is naturally very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science , organic chemistry , molecular biology , semiconductor physics , energy storage ,   microfabrication ,  molecular engineering , etc.
Scientists currently debate the future implications of nanotechnology.
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Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications , such as in nanomedicine , nanoelectronics , biomaterials energy production, and consumer products. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials,  and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios.
Nanolaminated composite materials: structure, interface role and applications
These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted. The concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom , in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. The term "nano-technology" was first used by Norio Taniguchi in , though it was not widely known.
Inspired by Feynman's concepts, K. Eric Drexler used the term "nanotechnology" in his book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology , which proposed the idea of a nanoscale "assembler" which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control. Also in , Drexler co-founded The Foresight Institute with which he is no longer affiliated to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications.
Thus, emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the s occurred through convergence of Drexler's theoretical and public work, which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology, and high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control of matter. Since the popularity spike in the s, most of nanotechnology has involved investigation of several approaches to making mechanical devices out of a small number of atoms.
In the s, two major breakthroughs sparked the growth of nanotechnology in modern era.
First, the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in which provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds, and was successfully used to manipulate individual atoms in In the early s, the field garnered increased scientific, political, and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress. Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnologies, exemplified by the Royal Society 's report on nanotechnology.
Meanwhile, commercialization of products based on advancements in nanoscale technologies began emerging. These products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Some examples include the Silver Nano platform for using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent, nanoparticle -based transparent sunscreens, carbon fiber strengthening using silica nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles.
Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology, such as in the U. By the mids new and serious scientific attention began to flourish. Projects emerged to produce nanotechnology roadmaps   which center on atomically precise manipulation of matter and discuss existing and projected capabilities, goals, and applications.
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Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced.
In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products. By comparison, typical carbon-carbon bond lengths , or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule , are in the range 0.
By convention, nanotechnology is taken as the scale range 1 to nm following the definition used by the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US. The lower limit is set by the size of atoms hydrogen has the smallest atoms, which are approximately a quarter of a nm kinetic diameter since nanotechnology must build its devices from atoms and molecules.
The upper limit is more or less arbitrary but is around the size below which phenomena not observed in larger structures start to become apparent and can be made use of in the nano device.
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To put that scale in another context, the comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth. Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the "bottom-up" approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition.
Areas of physics such as nanoelectronics , nanomechanics , nanophotonics and nanoionics have evolved during the last few decades to provide a basic scientific foundation of nanotechnology. Several phenomena become pronounced as the size of the system decreases. These include statistical mechanical effects, as well as quantum mechanical effects, for example the " quantum size effect" where the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size.
This effect does not come into play by going from macro to micro dimensions. However, quantum effects can become significant when the nanometer size range is reached, typically at distances of nanometers or less, the so-called quantum realm. Additionally, a number of physical mechanical, electrical, optical, etc. One example is the increase in surface area to volume ratio altering mechanical, thermal and catalytic properties of materials. Diffusion and reactions at nanoscale, nanostructures materials and nanodevices with fast ion transport are generally referred to nanoionics.
Mechanical properties of nanosystems are of interest in the nanomechanics research. The catalytic activity of nanomaterials also opens potential risks in their interaction with biomaterials. Materials reduced to the nanoscale can show different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale, enabling unique applications. For instance, opaque substances can become transparent copper ; stable materials can turn combustible aluminium ; insoluble materials may become soluble gold. A material such as gold, which is chemically inert at normal scales, can serve as a potent chemical catalyst at nanoscales.
Much of the fascination with nanotechnology stems from these quantum and surface phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale. Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any structure. These methods are used today to manufacture a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or commercial polymers. This ability raises the question of extending this kind of control to the next-larger level, seeking methods to assemble these single molecules into supramolecular assemblies consisting of many molecules arranged in a well defined manner.